This is a really simple smoke alarm circuit design. The circuit consists of two important modules that are sensor module using a photo interrupter module and alarm module using a tone generator IC NE555 with astable multivibrator configuration and then connected to the speaker, so you can hear the alarm sound.
How the Simple Smoke Alarm Works
If no smoke presence around the device, the gap of photo interrupter module is clear and the light from LED falls on the phototransistor through the slot. As a result, the collector of phototransistor is pulled towards ground. This causes reset pin 4 of IC 555 to go low. Accordingly, the timer is reset and hence the alarm does not sound.
However, when smoke is present in the gap of the photo interrupter module, the light beam from LED to the phototransistor is obstructed. As a result, the phototransistor stops conducting and pin 4 (reset) of IC 555 goes high to activate the alarm.
Take a note that this simple smoke alarm must be housed inside an enclosure with holes to allow the smoke to enter the box.